Reciprocal Effects of Self-efficacy and Mastery Experience During Smoking Cessation: a Daily Diary Study
U. Scholz1, G. Stadler2, S. Ochsner1, N. Knoll3, R. Hornung1
1University of Zurich, Department of Psychology, Switzerland
2Columbia University, Psychology Department, USA
3Freie Universitšt Berlin, Department of Education and Psychology, Germany
Background: Self-efficacy beliefs and mastery experience are assumed to develop following a reciprocal relationship. So far, however, there is a lack of studies examining this reciprocity in everyday life during a behavior change episode at the intrapersonal level. Moreover, most studies focus on self-report only, facing potential problems with shared method variance. These points were addressed in the present study. Methods: Overall, 100 smokers and their non-smoking partners completed daily diaries during the self-set quit date and 21 days later assessing mastery, smoking-specific self-efficacy and partner-rated efficacy. Cross-lagged multilevel modelling was applied. Findings: Controlling for previous day mastery experience, previous days with higher than usual self-efficacy were followed by days with higher mastery. The same pattern of results emerged for self-efficacy as outcome. These results were fully replicated when partner-rated smoking-specific efficacy was used instead of smoker-reported self-efficacy. Discussion: This study provides evidence for the reciprocal association between self-efficacy and mastery during a behavior change episode in everyday life.