Advancing the Salutogenic Model: Lessons Learned From Research on Salutogenic Working Conditions
Background: In health research, the salutogenic model is mostly used to study the sense of coherence as a personal resistance resource preventing dis-ease of demanding life situation – a resilience perspective. By combining the health development model (Bauer et al. 2006) and the job-demands resource model (Demerouti et al. 2001), the authors developed the job-demands-resource health (JDRH) model. The paper empirically tests this model and draws conclusions for advancing the salutogenic model. Methods: The JDRH model has been tested in a longitudinal study of 6 large companies from diverse economic sectors. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was conducted with baseline survey data of 2’159 employees. Validated scales measured key job demands, job resources, negative as well as positive health outcomes. Findings: As predicted by the JDRH Model, the pathogenic path from job demands to negative health (ß = .41) and the parallel, salutogenic path from job resources to positive health (ß = .89) were positive. Furthermore, the cross-link between job resources and negative health (ß = -.36), was negative as predicted. Discussion: this model suggests to expand the salutogenic model by considering (job) resources both as a resistance resource buffering negative health outcomes of (job) demands, and simultaneously as health enhancement resources improving positive health outcomes.