Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol to the Design of a Serious Game Against Cyberbullying Among Young Adolescents
1Ghent University, Department of Movement and Sport Sciences, Belgium
2Antwerp University, Department of Communication Studies, Belgium
Background. The Intervention Mapping Protocol (IMP) is a planning tool to design theory- and evidence-based health interventions. This approach was used to design a serious game against cyberbullying among young adolescents. Methods. Data-collection procedures included focus groups (61 adolescents, Step 1), school-based survey (1750 adolescents, Step 1), online survey (437 teachers, Step 1), pen-and-paper survey (105 parents), pen-and-paper survey (530 adolescents, Step 4), focus groups (69 adolescents, Step 4). Collected evidence was combined with behavior change theories (Step 2, 3) to design the intervention. Results. Literature suggested high potential for a focus on bystanders. Main determinants of positive bystander behavior were moral disengagement attitudes, outcome expectations, subjective norm and self-efficacy. Behavior change methods (e.g. reinforcement) had to be translated into game principles (e.g. extra resources, accessorize). Concept testing showed positive evaluations of the narrative and characters. Conclusions. Intervention Mapping Protocol can be useful for serious game design, but its behavioral change methods need fine-tuning to fit with game mechanics.