Do Psychological Interventions Reduce Anxiety and Depression in Patients Undergoing Invasive Cardiac Procedures? a Meta-analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials..
1University of Liverpool, Institute of Psychology, Health and Society, UK.
Background: This meta-analysis assessed the efficacy of psychological interventions to reduce distress in patients undergoing cardiac procedures and explored the impact of intervention features. Methods: Random effects models assessed changes in depression and anxiety at post-test (earliest after baseline) and follow-up (after three months), with moderator analyses for type of usual care, cardiac procedure undertaken, intervention duration, risk of bias, and facilitator type. Findings: Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria (2181 participants), 16 reported depression and 12 reported anxiety. Relative to controls, interventions reduced depression and anxiety at post-treatment (SMD = -0.66, 95% CI: -1.14 to -0.19, and SMD = -0.40, 95% CI: -0.71 to -0.09, respectively), and anxiety at follow-up (SMD = -0.29, 95% CI: -0.47 to -0.10). Type of usual care, type of cardiac procedure, and intervention duration significantly moderated depression outcomes, whereas facilitator characteristics significantly moderated anxiety outcomes. Discussion: Psychological interventions can reduce distress in cardiac patients. Future research could investigate how intervention features impact outcomes.