Development of Playfulness Scale in Active Free Play Context of School-aged Children
Y.H. Lee1, K.Takenaka2, T. Shimazaki2, K. Konuma3
1Waseda University, Graduate School of Sport Sciences
2Waseda University, Faculty of Human Sciences
3Waseda University, Graduate School of Human Sciences
Background: This study aimed to develop a scale measuring playfulness of schoolchildren in active play context. Methods: The playfulness scale was developed on the basis of literature review, focus group interview, and experts review. A sample of 526 elementary school children responded to the playfulness scale and children’s perceived stress scale. Factor analysis, reliability analysis and validity analysis were conducted to establish structure of the scale, and to obtain evidence for validity and reliability of the scale. Findings: The scale consisted 19 items with a five-factors structure: Engrossed, self-determine, self-efficacy, team rule, and socialization. Cronbach’s ? were from .788 to .876. The scale had high internal reliability (r = .903) by using the split-half method. Results of the regression indicated that playfulness significantly predicted the number of perceived stress (? = -.325, p < .01, R square = .106, p < .01). Discussion: The playfulness scale in active play context demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity, which could be applied for assessing playfulness in school-aged children.