Examining Effective Health Messages to Promote Exercise: a Test of Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM)
1Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, University of Alberta
Background: This study used the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM) to examine if perceived health risk and efficacy about exercise influences attitude and intention. It was hypothesized that in a high-efficacy perceived group, attitude and intention would be enhanced as individuals’ perceptions of risk increased and protection motivation would mediate the relationship between perceived risk and attitude and intention; in the low-efficacy group, attitude and intention would be reduced as perceptions of risk increased and defensive motivation would mediate the relationship between perceived risk and attitude and intention. Methods: A 2(risk) by 2 (efficacy) experiment was conducted. 160 participants (Mean age= 25.3, male=41.9%) responded to questionnaires about severity, susceptibility, response-efficacy, self-efficacy, protection motivation, defensive motivation, attitude and intention toward exercise. Data were analysed using analysis of variance and Structural Equation Modeling. Findings: An interaction effect between perceived risk and efficacy on attitude and intention was found. In the high-efficacy condition, attitude and intention were higher when perceived risk was high; in the low-efficacy condition, attitude and intention were higher when perceived risk was low. The mediation hypotheses were also supported. Discussion: Loss-framed messages applying EPPM to promote exercise are suggested.