Time perspective and anxiety in adult with major depressive disorder

  • H. Kaya Lefèvre
  • C. Mirabel-Sarron
  • A. Docteur
  • C. Bungener


Background: Time perspective (TP) can be described as an individual’s attitude toward personal past, present and future. Literature suggests that it plays a major role in several areas of psychological functioning (self-esteem, self-efficacy, coping with illness) and impacts actuals thoughts and behaviors. However, it has been seldom studied in psychopathology and mental health. This study investigates the differences of TP between depressed and non-depressed subjects, and its relationship with anxiety. Methods: 26 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder paired by sex, age and education level to 26 non-depressed participants were included. Participants were asked to answer time perspective (ZTPI), depression (BDI-13) and anxiety (STAI-Y) self-reported inventories. Statistical analysis included correlations analysis and comparisons of scores between depressed patients and non-depressed participants. Results: Results indicate that TP is significantly altered among depressed patients. Depressed patients display a more negative view of their past, a less hedonistic perspective towards their present, and a more fatalistic perspective when compared to non-depressed participants. The same correlations are observed with anxiety. Discussion: Results underline the importance of considering TP in depressed patients, and encourage an in depth study of the relationship between TP, mood disorders and anxiety. Considering the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety in somatic and chronic diseases, as well as the role played by TP in coping with illness, it would be interesting to further investigate TP as one of the possible explaining factors in individual differences regarding the occurrence of depression and anxiety in this population. Keywords: time perspective, depression, anxiety.
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