A Counterbalanced Comparison Study Between a Time-contingent Smartphone Application and an Event-contingent Estimated Snack Diary

  • S. Wouters
  • V. Thewissen
  • M. Duif
  • L. Lechner
  • N. Jacobs


Background: Between-meal snacking is a key risk factor for overweight. The aim of this study is to validate momentary energy intake as measured by the Snackimpuls app, a smartphone application based on the Experience Sampling Method. Methods: In a counterbalanced design participants (n=46; age 20-50) reported snack intake during four days with Snackimpuls and during four days with an estimated snack diary. To investigate whether Snackimpuls and the snack diary were comparable on momentary energy intake (Kcal) a multilevel regression analysis was conducted. A mixed Anova Latin square analysis was used to assess differential transfer. Findings: Results showed no significant differences between the app and the snack diary (? = 11.84, SE = 8.03, p > 0.05). A mixed design Anova Latin square analysis showed no differential transfer (F(1,44) = 3.29, p =.077). Discussion: This study demonstrates satisfactory validity of the Snackimpuls app to assess momentary energy intake. The Snackimpuls app is a suitable instrument to assess dynamic psychological processes related to between-meal snacking behavior.
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