Paternal Post-Attachment Scale: Validation Studies to the Portuguese Population


  • M. Pires
  • O. Nunes
  • R. Brites
  • J. Hipólito
  • M. Lourdes Vasconcelos
  • E. Spitz


In the scope of attachment research, fathers are no longer excluded, assuming that father-baby relationship has an equivalent affective pattern as in mothers. Paternal Postnatal Attachment Scale PPAS, a 19 items – three factor scale was created to support this (Condon & Corkindale, 2008). Due to the relevance of attachment in family functioning, we intend to validate PPAS to Portuguese population. After the back-translation process, pre-test with 10 men, PPAS was applied to 220, 21-57 year old men (M=33.4; SD=6.11), mostly married (82.7%), newly fathers (M= 6.88 months; SD= 6.21). After KMO (0.79) and Bartlett’s test values confirmed (p <.001), a PC Analysis-varimax rotation was conducted. Two factors were extracted, explaining 32.4% of total variance: 1st factor - Attachment quality (11 items, ?=.77); 2nd - Patience and tolerance (5 items, ?=.64). Three items with lower factor loading (<.30) were excluded, resulting in 16 items with a good internal consistency (?=.80). The bi-factor structure doesn't support the original Condon and Corkindale’s model (Pleasure in interaction; Patience and tolerance; Affection and Pride), though it's consistent with attachment theory background.






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